With swallowing disorders, reassurance is often enough and in time the swallowing problems will gradually decrease. Refolding of stomach acid often plays a role. In that case a change of lifestyle habits can be advised or gastric acid inhibitors are prescribed. For functional swallowing problems speech therapy treatment can be started. In case of mucosal abnormalities biopsies are taken to assess the nature of the tissue. In case of a malignancy you are referred to the Antoni van Leeuwenhoek hospital for further treatment. A small group of people qualify for an operation to treat the problems that occur when swallowing or choking.